- Refers to a position on the same page or a page that comes before that is higher up
- Indicates a rank or authority that is higher or superior
- Describes something that is mentioned or written higher up on the same page or a page that came before
- The details about the land transaction can be found in the section above.
- The court ruled that the above was the only authority competent to make a decision.
- To understand the context, refer to the arguments made above.