- An abbreviation for the Latin word idem, which is used in legal documents to prevent repeated reference to the same thing
- After mentioning the case citation once, the shorthand 'id.' was used in the rest of the document to refer back to it.
- In the legal brief, instead of repeatedly writing the long title of the book, the author used 'id.' after the first citation.
- To avoid unnecessary repetition, 'id.' was used in the law article.