- The rules enforced in a region by the military authority of a foreign power that has taken control of that region
- The legal system put into effect by a government during an emergency situation, when normal civilian law enforcement is unable to uphold safety and order
- During the time of severe unrest, the government declared martial law to restore order.
- The military governed under martial law in the occupied territory to maintain control.
- When the city's police forces were unable to maintain peace during the riots, martial law was put into effect.