- A rule enforced by the government that is specific to a particular location, individual, or group of individuals or items that share similar characteristics, but doesn't apply to the whole group. Such a law is considered unconstitutional if the group identified for the law is chosen without any reasonable or legitimate reasons
- The city passed a special law prohibiting the use of plastic bags, only applicable to grocery stores.
- The state enacted a special law ordering certain businesses to close early, but restaurants were exempted.
- A group of citizens filed a lawsuit, claiming that the special law applied to them was arbitrary and unconstitutional.